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Human Arm Posture Control Using the Impedance Controllability of the Musculo-Skeletal System against the alteration of the environments

Jaehyo Kim/ Makoto Sato/ Yasuharu Koike
Transaction on Control Automation, and Systems Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, pp.43-48, 2002

Abstract : We show that humans execute the postural control ingeniously by regulating the impedance properties of the musculo-skeletal system as the motor command against the alteration of the environment. Adjusting muscle activity can control the impedance properties of the musculo-skeletal system. To quantify the changes in human arm viscoelasticity on the vertical plane during interaction with the environment, we asked our subject to hold an object. By utilizing surface electromyographic(EMG) studies, we determined a relationship between the perturbation and a time-varying muscle co-activation. Our study showed when the subject lifts the object by himself the muscle stiffness increases while the torque remains the same just before the lift-off. These results suggest that the central nervous system(CNS) simultaneously controls not only the equilibrium point(EP) and the torque, but also the muscle stiffness as themotor command in posture control during the contact task

Keyword : electromyographic(EMG), central nervous system(CNS), muscle coactivation, equilibrium point(EP)

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